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Free physics notes and video lessons

Recently added video lessons and pages include:

Strange particles, what are they and why are they strange? Strange particles and strangeness is a topic in most more advanced physics courses. The explanation here explains what a strange particle is, why it was called strange. How strange particles are produced and how they decay. The explanation centres upon the most common examples of strange particles, the kaons.

Pair production In the notes and video is explained that pair production and annihilation are opposite processes converting the energy of a photon into mass and the reverse. The video tutorial explains the processes using animation and in terms of Feynman diagrams. Finally there is a sample calculation of the frequency of the photon that would be required for pair production.

Carbon dating Carbon dating is based on the amount of carbon 14 in a sample of organic material. The age of the organic material is judged by the amount of activity of the carbon 14 which has a long half life. The video explains how carbon 14 is formed and how it enters the food chain. It goes on to explain how the age of an organic sample can be calculated from the measured activity.

Baryon number and conservation The video with supporting notes explain what the baryon number is, which particles it usefully applies to and how it is calculated, with examples. 

Nuclear density, a million tonnes in a teaspoon notes and video. The video and notes are in three parts. Firstly a general explanation of why nuclear material is so dense. The second part is a calculation of nuclear density using a carbon nucleus as an example. The third part is a brief summary of the characteristics of a neutron star.

Are neutrons stable?      The notes and video explains to A level standard (16 to 19 physics students) that neutrons are a fundamental part of all atoms (except hydrogen). They enable the atom to be stable "diluting" the repulsive forces between the positively charges protons. Within the atom the neutrons are mostly stable, but not always. Outside the atom free neutrons are always unstable, decaying with a half life of about 10 minutes.

Muon decay and relativity: Video and notes explaining what a muon is and how the measured rate of decay is useful in supporting Einstein's theories of relativity.

Gauge bosons, the glue that holds everything together. The video and notes give a brief introduction and description of the four particle carriers of the four forces recognised in the standard model. The photon conveying the electromagnetic force. The graviton (the existence of which has not been confirmed in practice) conveying the gravitational attraction between particles of matter. The gluon conveying the strong force and W plus, W minus and Z bosons responsible for the weak force.

Fermions The video explains that this group of particles includes the fundamental leptons and quarks as well as the quark composites called hadrons. Fermions are the building blocks of matter. The video lesson describes the main properties of each and provides useful summaries.

You can go to the notes and video list here

but if you would prefer to just look at the videos and not the notes, it may be easier to go to my YOUTUBE channel playlists

Links and support

If you are a student preparing for examinations it is essential that you revise well and that you practice examination questions. You must check your answers with your teacher if you can or with standard answers provided by the exam boards.

To help you revise I have listed some links to other websites I think might help. These include those with useful notes although not usually much video. I have only chosen those which seem to me to be authoritative and accurate. There are also links to the A level physics syllabus of all UK exam boards who almost all provide past papers and mark schemes.

You might find it helpful to watch this revision guide here.

Home schooling and revision

As many students around the world are using home schooling these are all free resources that may help to support you. Many sites, for example BBC bitesize are more comprehensive but these notes contain many videos showing practical demonstrations and simulations together with the explanation.

Many notes and explanations are on easily downloaded PDF sheets and all notes can be copied and pasted into your own. The pages include most of the more difficult physics topics (and some of the easier ones!) all aimed at students and their teachers in the 15 to 19 year range, as well as enquiring adults.